ADHD: The Complex Neurodevelopmental Disorder
ADHD stands for “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”. It is a psychological health disease which can cause the unconventional status of hyperactivity and hasty attitude. It appears in children and teens and can continue into adulthood.
Boys also are presumed to have it more than girls. It is generally noticed meanwhile the early school ages while a baby starts to have issues paying attention. People with ADHD can also have problems focusing their attention on individual work or sitting still for lengthy ages of time.
ADHD analysis is known by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). It can not be inhibited. But disclosing it early and having a great remedy and study plan, can help a child or adult with ADHD manage their symptoms.
1. Genes: ADHD go to spread in families.
2. Chemicals: Brain chemicals in people with ADHD may be imbalanced.
3. Brain changes: Areas of the brain that controls attention are less active in children with ADHD.
4. Poor nutrition, infections, smoking, drinking, and substance abuse during pregnancy: These things can affect a baby’s brain development.
5. Toxins: They may affect a child’s brain development.
6. A brain disorder: Damage to the frontal lobe, can cause problems controlling impulses and emotions.
There are 3 types of ADHD. Such as primarily inattentive type, primarily hyperactive-impulsive type, and primarily combined type.
A. Primarily Inattentive Type
People with this type of ADHD have severe difficulties in focusing, completing tasks, and following instructions. This type is more common among girls with ADHD.
B. Primarily Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
People with this type of ADHD generally show hyperactive and impulsive behavior like fidgeting, interrupting people when they are talking, and not being able to wait their turn.
C. Primarily Combined Type
This is the most common type of ADHD. People with this type of ADHD show both inattentive and hyperactive symptoms.
There are lots of symptoms that occur in children & adults.
1. In children
In children, there are two types of symptoms. Such as Inattentive & Hyperactive-impulsive.
A child who shows a pattern of inattention may often,
a. It is easily abstracted
b. Doesn’t follow assignments
c. Doesn’t seem to be listening
d. Doesn’t pay attention and makes careless mistakes
e. Forgets about daily activities
f. Face problems organizing daily tasks
g. Doesn’t like to do things that require sitting still
h. Often loses things
A child who shows a pattern of hyperactive and impulsive symptoms may often,
a. Does not stay seated
b. Does not play quietly
c. Is always moving, such as running or climbing on things.
d. Talks excessively
e. Has trouble waiting for their turn
f. Blurts out answers
g. Distrubs others
In adults the symptoms may often,
a. Being late or forgetting things
c. Low self-esteem
d. Problems at work
e. Trouble controlling anger
h. Trouble staying organized
j. Easily frustrated
k. Often bored
l. Trouble concentrating when reading
m. Mood swings
o. Relationship problems
There is not a simple test which can diagnose ADHD. Children are typically exposed to symptoms before the age of seven (7). But ADHD shares symptoms with different disorders. The behaviors should be present and disruptive to regular life for at least 6 months.
Besides displaying the pattern of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, or both, the DSM-5 states that to be determined, a person’s symptoms must be displayed before 12 years of age. They have to be present in more than just one setting, like at both school and home.
Symptoms also interfere with everyday life. And these symptoms can not be explained by other mental disorders.
An initial diagnosis may expose one type of ADHD. But symptoms can change day by day. This is important information for adults, who may need to be revised.
There are distinct ways to treat ADHD. But research shows that for many children, the great approach to managing symptoms is a multimodal approach. This includes multiple strategies of treatment that work together. Many symptoms of ADHD may be managed with medication and therapy.
There is some controversy about their possible overuse in treating ADHD. They can help manage hyperactive and impulsive behavior and improve attention span. The two main types of medicines used to treat ADHD are stimulants and non-stimulants. They act on the brain chemicals, that can form impulsive behavior worse.
Stimulants boost the supply of norepinephrine and dopamine which are available to the brain. This allows the people to increase their attention. Some stimulants medications are,
c. Lisdexamfetamine etc.
Stimulant medicines do not work for all people with ADHD.
Atomoxetine (Strattera) is the first non-stimulant drug permitted to treat ADHD in adults. It is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, so it really works to boost the level of norepinephrine. People older than 6 may be taken non-stimulant medicines like,
c. Guanfacine etc.
Besides, there is some medication that is used for ADHD. Such as Dexmethylphenidate, and Methylphenidate.
Side effects of ADHD medicines
Most of the side effects are minor and improve with time. Sometimes, stimulants can have more serious side effects. For example, some are linked to a higher risk of cardiac problems and death in children with cardiac arrest. They also make psychiatric conditions such as depression or anxiety. Other side effects are;
b. Loss of appetite
d. Trouble in sleeping
e. Skin discoloration (with patches)
f. Upset stomach
The target of these treatments are developing behavior. Such as,
a. Behavior alteration learns ways to restore bad behaviors with good ones.
b. Psychotherapy (counseling) can help someone with ADHD learn better approaches to maintain their emotions and frustration.
c. Social skills training can teach behaviors, such as taking turns and sharing.
Some natural remedies are also available. They have been shown a lot of benefits. Dietary supplements with omega-3 have displayed remarkable benefits. Some advices are,
a. Eat a healthy diet with lots of fruits, vegetables, and protein.
b. Get some exercise every day.
c. Limit time spent on electronic devices.
d. Get plenty of sleep.
e. Keep a clear schedule and routines.