Medical School, Notes, Pharmacy

Stem Cell: The Facts You Should Know

A stem cell is a cell with the unique ability to develop into specialized cell types in the body. In the future they may be used to replace cells and tissues that have been damaged or lost due to diseases.

How stem cell differ from normal cell

Stem CellNormal Cell
    Stem cells have the ability to divide and replicate themselves for prolonged periods of time.
    Normal cells cannot replicate themselves.
    Stem cells have the ability to proliferate which can occur naturally or in a laboratory.
Normal cells have ability to proliferate.
    Stem cells in the laboratory setting can produce millions of stem cells in just hours.
Normal cell cannot produce in the laboratory.
    Example: Cancer cell.
    Example: Muscle cells, Blood cells, and Nerve cells.

Write down the application of stem cell in medical science.

Stem cells cure many diseases. Such as-

  1. Spinal cord injury.
  2. Diabetes.
  3. Alzheimer’s disease.
  4. Lung disease.
  5. Arthritis.

Where stem cells can be found?

Stem cell can be found in brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver.

Classify the stem cells and briefly explain them

There are five types of stem cells.

Totipotent stem cells:
  1. The most powerful among the 5.
  2. Can develop to a fully-functional living organism.
  3. Example: Fertilized Egg.
Pluripotent stem cells:
  1. Can self-renew.
  2. Well-suited for use in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine.
  3. Example: Embryonic Stem Cells.
Multipotent stem cells:
  1. Can self-renew and differentiate into a specific range of cell type.
  2. Example: Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC)
Oligopotent stem cells:
  1. Can only self-renew and differentiate into closely related cell types.
  2. Example: Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC)
Unipotent stem cells:
  1. Least potent and most limited type of stem cell.
  2. Can only self-renew and differentiate into a single cell type.
  3. Example: Muscle Stem Cells.

What are the function of Natural killer cells, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and Mast cells

Function of Natural killer cells:
  1. NK (Natural killer) cells infected with virus by blocking replication of virus.
  2. It increase the inflammation in the infected tissue by secreting inflammation cytokines.
  3. NK cells also kills tumor cells.
Function of T lymphocyte:
  1. Stimulation of cytotoxic and suppressor T cells.
  2. Stimulation of B-cell growth.
  3. Activation of Macrophage system.
  4. Feedback stimulatory effect on helper t cells themselves.
Function of B lymphocyte:
  1. Produce antibodies against antigen.
  2. B cells are an essential component of the adaptive immune system.
Function of Mast cells:
  1. Mast cells are rapidly synthesizes others on activation.
  2. Mediators contributes to the change in anaphylaxis.
  3. They stimulate chemotaxis.
  4. They stimulate connective tissue repair and angiogenesis.

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